(10 groups of problems = 5 EP + 5 IP)
- the problems of PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY & THEORETICAL HISTORY (PH&TH) that are interesting not only to professional philosophers and specialists in Social and Historical Sciences.
EP1. PROBLEMS OF HISTORICAL DYNAMICS:
What are the interior essences of exterior historical phenomena?
What are the main interior regularities (laws, factors, vehicles, moving forces, etc.) of historical micro and macrodynamics?
What are the causes and mechanisms for patterns of historical change (evolution, progress or regress, cycles, trends, etc.)?
In which conditions and how they determine main kinds of historical changes?
EP2. PROBLEMS OF THE STRUCTURE OF HISTORY:
What is the connection between historical mechanisms (see EP1) and the structure of History (temporal & non-temporal)?
What is the temporal structure of Human History(perodization and/or phaseology)?
What was the beginning (genesis, starting point) of Human History?
What are the main temporal elements of History (epochs, stages, formations, levels; axis, centers, bifurcations, etc.)?
What can be "the end of History" and what is the meaning of this term?
What is the non-temporal structure of Human History (spatial, geographical, national, cultural, spiritual, religious, political, social, economic, technological, etc.)?
What are the main elements of the non-temporal structure of History (continents, civilizations or "societies," nations or national states, cultures, "worlds," social-cultural "types," etc.)?
EP3. PROBLEMS OF THE MEANING OF HISTORY:
What is the general direction for the realization of historical mechanisms (factors, moving forces, etc.)?
What is the principle for the temporal structure of History (sequence, circle, life circle, spiral, evolution, progress, regress, growth, development, etc.)?
What is the principle for the non-temporal structure of History (geographical, geopolitical; national, ethnic, linguistic, cultural; technological, economical; moral, value, spiritual, etc.)?
Does the meaning of History exist? If "no," what should be the adequate relation of an individual or community to historical events, changes, processes? If "yes," Is there one meaning of History or there are many senses of History?
How the meaning(s) of History can be revealed, created, formulated?
Can it (they) change? What is the general direction of these changes?
EP4. PROBLEMS OF SELF-DETERMINATION IN HISTORY:
How can any human subject (individual or community: group, strata, nation, civilization) reveal his place, role, status, position in the context of Human History?
In other words: how can any human subject determine or identify his past (historical way), his present (historical situation) and his future (prospects)?
Are there historical faults, historical merits, historical tasks? Should anyone be morally responsible for the faults of his ancestors?
Has anyone the right to be proud of the merits of his ancestors?
Should anyone continue realizing the tasks of his ancestors?
EP5. PROBLEMS OF ETHICAL & PRACTICAL ISSUES:
Is it possible for any human subject to determine (to reveal, to set, to establish) his values (ideals, goals, needs, preferences, attitudes, principles, norms, etc.) on the basis of scientific knowledge and philosophical comprehension of History?
If "no," how should the scientific knowledge and philosophical comprehension of History be used in human practice?
If "yes," what are the main ethical issues for the solutions of problems EP1-4?
How can any human subject determine his specific ethical values and norms, practical goals and tasks in the context of History?
- the problems of PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY & THEORETICAL HISTORY that are mainly interesting for specialists in Philosophy, Social and Historical Sciences.
IP1. "THE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY" PROBLEMS:
Which structure (classification, typology) of conceptions of PH&TH (further "the conceptions") is the most appropriate for analysis?
Which scheme of analysis for them is the most adequate and useful?
Is reconstruction (modernization) of the conceptions legitimate?
If "no," how is it possible to use ancient ideas with alien, strange conceptual structures?
If "yes," what should be the principle or method of reconstruction?
Which ideas of thought tradition and contemporary conceptions are productive for solving problems EP 1-5?
The same for the problems IP 1-5.
IP2. EPISTEMOLOGICAL PROBLEMS
What are the relations (difference, connections) between philosophical and scientific approaches to Human History?
What is the relationship between PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY and other branches of Philosophy (Social Philosophy, Anthropology, Philosophy of Culture, Philosophy of Religion, Axiology, Philosophy of Technology, etc.)?
Which cognitive approach is adequate (legitimate, productive) for solving problems of PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY? (Rational, intuitive, phenomenological, existential, hermeneutic, analytical, ethical, spiritual or any other approach?)
Is THEORETICAL HISTORY possible (legitimate) as a Social Theoretical Science?
If "no," what should be the connection between PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY and empirical historical knowledge (or historiography)?
If "yes," What is the specific character of historical data, concepts, hypothesis, theories, models, etc.?
What are the relations (difference and connections) between THEORETICAL HISTORY and the following branches:
IP3. ONTOLOGICAL PROBLEMS:
What is the real nature (ontological status) and specific character of historical phenomena, processes, trends, laws?
What is the nature of historical mechanisms (see EP1), the elements of temporal and non-temporal structure of History (see EP2)?
What is the ontological status and the very meaning of "the meaning of History" (see EP3)?
What are the relations between its objective and subjective aspects?
IP4. VALUE PROBLEMS:
What is the role and status of value (normative, ethical, moral, deontological) aspects in PH&TH?
Which phenomena are "interesting,""essential" (of cognitive value) in History?
What should be the value premises in philosophical and scientific research of History?
What are the value aspects of historical mechanisms (see EP1), of temporal and non-temporal structure of History (see EP2)?
What is the relation between values and the meaning(s) of History (see EP3)?
What role values should play in the historical self-determination of an individual or community (see EP4)?
Which values and what role should they play in ethical and practical issues from historical knowledge and comprehension (see EP5)?
IP5. EDUCATIONAL PROBLEMS:
Is the teaching of PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY necessary in schools and/or universities?
If "no," what other disciplines can serve to form social, historical responsibility and self-determination for new generations?
If "yes," what should be the social and educational goals for teaching PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY?
What elements and aspects of PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY are adequate for teaching in the different educational stages (school, university: undergraduate, graduate)?
What should be the content and structure of the courses PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY?
What educational approaches and methods are adequate and productive in PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY teaching?